Internet voting fraud inevitable, says expert

Post by Mike Klassen in


A dyed purple finger has become a symbol of democracy in Iraq

"Not only is there a risk of voter coercion, the technology is vulnerable too."

It's become an all too commonplace occurrence at Vancouver city council – a staff report is filed as 'late distribution' and posted on the website a day before it is to be voted upon. In this case it was about whether the City of Vancouver approves the adoption of internet voting in time for the 2011 election.

The staff report was brief and to the point. Internet voting has been tried in other (smaller) Canadian jurisdictions, and anecdotally at least there has been no reported abuse. Therefore it is recommended by staff that Vancouver takes a leap of faith and tries it out during advanced polls this fall. Oh, and it won't add any additional cost to how we vote.

Those who have watched Vision Vancouver with a critical eye know to never take anything from the minds of their party strategists at face value. Unfortunately, that's exactly what appears to have happened when it came to coverage of this topic. If you are to believe what was reported, this was simply an effort to move toward modernity and increase voter participation. Risks? Pah!

Only Councillor Suzanne Anton voted against the proposal, and during the council meeting her concerns about possible voter fraud and the risks associated with technology were dismissed as mere narrow-mindedness by others on council.

Someone who applauded Anton's cautiousness was Cristian Worthington, a successful Vancouver-based software entrepreneur. Worthington has raised alarm bells in the past about internet voting, and even served as a consultant for the Liberal Party in Nova Scotia during Canada's first ever internet vote in 1992.

Worthington fears that internet voting will leave our system incredibly vulnerable to systematic fraud. He has studied voting systems and knows well the ways elections have been exploited. He's familiar with the so-called 'floating ballot' scheme that allows several people to vote illegally at a single polling station. He recalls the ways voters have been exploited in the past, such as with a pint of rum. It was for this reason for many years that no alcohol was allowed to be served while voting stations were open.

Internet voting in the context of a local civic election is a solution looking for a problem. While it is supposed to increase voter participation, it only moves the needle by two or at most three per cent.

By moving to online systems you are providing opportunities for fraud on a massive scale, says Worthington. And with internet fraud, it can originate from just one computer.

Well over 100,000 pin numbers would have to be mailed to people on the voters list. Anyone who has any experience with B.C.'s voters lists knows that the records are at best sub-standard, especially in many poorer communities where the population is far more transient.

Where will those pin numbers wind up? What's to prevent coercion of voters, or possibly the buying and selling of pin numbers on a large scale? Never mind a pint of rum, five bucks might be the street value of pin numbers in 2011.

Cris Worthington says that fraud has been a problem throughout history when it comes to any system that can be exploited. "You could systematically influence a lot of votes for a relatively small amount of money," he says.

"People think that because they can bank online now, or use a credit card for an internet purchase that they can now vote online securely," says Worthington. "The reason we have such high credit card interest rates is because it buys you and the bank insurance against rampant credit card fraud. But when someone makes a fraudulent transaction on your credit card, the bank will reverse the charge. With online voting, it's too late. You can't un-elect someone if there's fraud discovered in the voting system."

Worthington says another factor no one fully considers is the possibility of a system failure. "With our current system, if a polling station is closed then another one can be set up in its place. But with the internet, we could have an entire neighbourhood go offline. A problem might exist with the backbone of one of the local carriers," says Worthington. "What then? Do you just not count those votes? What if they're lost because of a system failure?"

The symbol of citizens in Iraq with their forefingers dipped in purple dye to ensure that they've only voted once immediately comes to mind. Why do they do this? To ensure the sanctity of the vote itself, of course.

When you enter a polling station in Canada there is a ritual in place to make sure that no part of that vote is corrupted. I've sat for hours in polling places as a candidate representative, scrutineering the process.

There are multiple checks and balances to ensure that fraud is eradicated. And thank goodness for that, because if there is no confidence in our elections there would be no confidence at all in those we elect. How we elect people is the very underpinning of our civil society in Canada.

Internet voting, as it is currently conceived, does not have these carefully considered checks and balances in place. Why then would we take the risk of trying a new system without a full, transparent public discourse on what it means?

In recent elections we've seen increasing turnout at advanced polling stations, but declining turnout on Election Day. Worthington says this also provides complications. "With advanced polls you have people coming in from all over the city, not just one neighbourhood. This means that fraud would be much, much harder to detect. Anomalies are easier to find if voters come from one community, for example. Not so with advanced polls."

Vision Vancouver decided last Tuesday that Vancouverites didn't need to be involved in an important decision like this. Therefore it is up to Ida Chong, B.C.'s Minister of Community, Sport and Cultural Development to make the final decision. It is the prerogative of the Minister whether or not to allow Vancouver to make this critical change to our democratic system based upon a staff report, and sixty minutes of discussion in council chambers.

I hope that Minister Chong will choose a more prudent course, and ask the City of Vancouver to complete a more comprehensive and public discourse on internet voting. She should reject the current proposal by the Vision Vancouver city council to permit internet voting in the 2011 election.

On many occasions I've promoted the use of social media tools and digital technology to aid community development, and to improve basic public services. However, I do not have the confidence in technology yet to be the basis of something as important as choosing our elected representatives for city council, park board and school board.

If we think voter turnout is poor today, just imagine what it will be if the public thinks that there's fraud in our voting system.


For further background on the debate over internet voting see:

Editor's Note: Cristian Worthington wrote an informative opinion piece in the May 10th edition of the Vancouver Sun. Read "An open invitation to voting fraud."

- Post by Mike Klassen. Mike is a candidate seeking the council nomination for the Vancouver Non-Partisan Association (NPA). If you're an elected official or candidate seeking a nomination and want to write about urban issues, please send your 450-500 word submission to

Follow him @MikeKlassen or visit his website at


Mike Klassen

"Never mind a pint of rum, five bucks might be the street value of pin numbers in 2011."

Excellent post Mike and these words are so very true...add to this statement the lure of housing...

There is no such thing as internet security.

And I say this as someone who is currently working through having her credit card hijacked.

You cannot identify the voter and as Mike has pointed out - the door on mass manipulation is swung open.

Several years back I did a stint at an accounting firm. They were involved in the vote at the Khalsa Credit Union - which had always been controversial due to fraudulant ballots.

What we ended up doing was swiping the ballot with invisiable ink on the back side as the person entered the voting area. This way it could be verified as a valid ballot. It was very controlled.

Let's face it, if someone (or group) wants something bad enough, they will find a way to obtain it.

I realize we are going to the polls this year more than normal so part of this may be voter fatigue. However, it feels like the public is viewing voting as a chore rather than a privilege. Options like on-line voting seem to pander to this sentiment. Is it really that hard to go to a polling station and exercise your right to vote? I almost think people need to lose the right to vote in order to appreciate it. I believe it is the law in Australia that they have to vote. Well I think they may be on to something, I find it disappointing that is needs to be a law.

I realize this is slightly off topic - sorry for the hijack to your point Mike.

Agreed Paul.

Take a look at what is happening in the world right now - people fighting for the right to democracy, to vote for leaders that they want rather than those hoisted on them.

And yet here, every couple of years people can't get their ass ends of their couches to spend 1/2 hour max to voice their desire.

If you don't vote, then you have zero right to say in how things are run.

I don't think it is voter fatigue, it is just laziness.

Vision Vancouver failed to deliver on most of the important decisions they faced during their term in office. Or in all fairness, their term in 'orifice'. :-)
I want my finger PURPLE! Period.
I like to go to the polling station, feel the ballot and cross out whomever I want, in pencil. No biggie.
Bush stole his first American presidency using paper ballots... only imagine the possibilities if he would have used John Doe's behind a computer terminal.
Again, I want my finger PURPLE! Period.

The postal vote system introduced in the UK is widely thought to have caused significant corruption;

but at least there is a paper trail to allow some degree of exposure of abuse. The risks with internet voting are so obvious that I can only imagine it would be pushed by either the most incredibly naive technophiles or those believing they can turn it to their own advantage.

It is impossible in such systems to guarantee that the vote was cast secretly and freely, one of the foundations of democracy. Until its proponents put forward a way to resolve this problem, and they never have, we should not even be contemplating the idea.

Mike you hit the nail on the head. How can this kind of a significant change to the way we vote be introduced at the last minute without any public feedback. Oh what was I thinking? That's how vision operate this government. Act now consult never.

You also didn't mention how electronic ballots can't be scrutineered. A fundamental part of a democratic election.

I think the "privatization" of our municipal elections is a serious mistake. Its one thing for hackers to steal your credit card info but another thing for them to steal an election.

If you're too lazy to take 5 mins out of your day to vote, WHY ON EARTH WOULD WE BE MAKING THE PROCESS EASIER! The thought of hundreds of thousands of pin numbers floating out there for the NDP to scoop up is simply frightening.

"If you don't vote, then you have zero right to say in how things are run."

So, permanent residents of Canada who have not yet gained citizenship have zero right to say how they think the country should be run? People under the legal age to vote have no right to influence their own futures?

A cynic might think you are more interested in limiting public participation in the political process rather than encouraging people to voice their wishes.

Everyone has a right to say how things are run in the country they live, regardless of whether they vote or not. Voting is only one piece of the puzzle when it comes to democracy. More important is how we conduct ourselves in the long periods between marking an X.

A cynic might ask why you are slumming over here on CityCaucus given some of the disparaging remarks you have posted on Frances Bula's site regarding the quality of the comments and commentors. (O'well, one more to add to your list....)

With that said, Chris, how about taking 30 seconds and re-read my post.

That line was linked to the balance of content of the post and the general laziness shown by many when it comes to elections. But let's insert the line 'eligible voters as outlined by Elections Canada' as to remove an ambiguity about 'who' should/can vote.

I know how you love to choose a line and attempt to belittle the poster. Nice try.

Proponents of Internet Voting are fond of holding trials in the hope they can soften opposition by demonstrating an election can be held without incident (Vision's current scheme is proposed as a trial).

Unfortunately a successful test is proof of nothing. If a major network outage or security breach does not occur during a trial, it does not prove that failure of fraud won't occur in the future. In fact, it is more likely that fraud will occur in the future when hackers have time to develop their technology.

Tipping the balance of an election is easy. Elections are settled at the margins. You don't need to influence all of the votes cast, just enough to move the winner ahead. A computer virus infecting a tiny percentage of the computers used by the electorate would be enough to win the day. A concerted effort to buy PIN numbers could have the same effect.

Elections are bad candidates for automation. They occur infrequently and take relatively small amounts of cheap labour. Governments would be much wiser to focus on other automation projects.

Proponents of Internet Voting are inclined to cast themselves as modern and they like to brand opponents as Luddites.

I am reminded of a time when microwave ovens were introduced to the mass market and everyone tried to cook everything in the microwave. If you've every eaten a turkey cooked in the microwave, you have some idea what happens when technology is applied to the wrong problem.

Mr. Klassen should have read the Vancouver staff report before listing all the horrible results that he imagines could come from Internet voting. In a matter like this, wild imaginings should give way to actual experience. The report says that in “2010, over 40 municipalities in Ontario used online voting in conducting their general election.” In Markham turn out went up from 30% to 38%. Halifax and three other Nova Scotia municipalities have used Internet voting. In Halifax turn out went up 12 to 25% “when compared to three previous by-elections.” Peterborough has also used it.

“All three municipalities view the addition of internet voting as a success. The introduction of internet voting was very well received by the public in all three communities and is something residents would like to see continue.”

Janice Mackenzie, Vancouver’s chief election officer, said that the process to be used “will virtually eliminate the potential for the system to be misused.”

Experience around the world is similar.
When Estonia started Internet voting, turn out leapt from 9k in 2005 to over 100k in 2010

Tarvi Martens, who designed the Estonia Internet voting system, says it’s “more secure than Internet banking”

William J. Kelleher, Ph.D.
Twitter: wjkno1

In the rush to be trendy this Council has once again shot itself in the foot. The protest structure bylaw has already been used against red tents, bike lanes are being ignored by cyclists, now they totally misunderstand how to use the power of the internet to increase voter participation. Should we be surprised?
I felt sorry for the staff member who was saddled with producing and presenting that "report". She was sheepish and uncomfortable promoting something that she had to have known was pure, deep Bee You double "L" bull.

Word is this is going to cost taxpayers a bundle of dough. Don't believe what you read in the staff report. That's all bogus garbage. Do some investigative reporting and you will see what I mean.

I do not think that we should go to internet voting. It is difficult for people who may not the literacy skills to vote. At the polls (in person) they can ask for and receive some assistance if they choose. Imagine the "buddy" system that could arise if a partisan volunteer sets themselves up as the one to offer assistance. It is difficult enough to assure that we have a fair and impartial voting system as it is. If we and the city wants to increase voter participation at all level, them the onus is on providing a solid and clear understanding of what voting is and how the system works. Civic engagement is more that making it easier for people to vote, but to provide for people to want to engage beyond the politics. There are so many places that a people who live in our communities can have a say and contribute in a meaningful way, but the lack of understanding or unwillingness of city councils (at this time) to engage other that for recruitment is reflected in the declining numbers of people who are interested in what happens. Offering this quick fix of on line voting is not the answer. Have a good conversation and some education on the merits of civic engagement.

As someone who worked as a scrutineer during the last mayoral election, I can openly and honestly tell you that a partisan volunteer 'buddy system' was in full swing at Carnagie.

You would be amazed at how certain groups manipulate the system under the guise of addicts being 'disabled' and needing assistance in filling out their ballots. In other words, you sit here and I will complete your ballot for you. Thanks. Have a cookie.

What??? no coffee with that cookie!!!

The Thought of The Day

“The only other way I can think of, that may increase the voter turnout in BC, is to let the BC Lottery Corporation (of course I am joking) run the show. Make them a limited edition SCRATCH BALLOTS instead of ELECTION BALLOTS.”

Think about it.
Scratch your Ballot in the Wednesday by-election in Point Grey, and next to Christy Clark it says...‘$50’. Now, would you ballot that?
I didn’t think so.
See? Everybody wins! And don’t worry if you get a ‘She Needs To Get Laid’. Simply leave your phone number and leave.

Or next to David Eby – ‘Lunatic – He’s Waiting For You Outside’.
What do you do? Exactly, and again, everybody wins!

Or take the coming November election when next to the Vision candidates you’ll get ‘To Hollyhock All Inclusive You Go’. That, you keep. You need the vacation. Get it? See where I am going with this?
And if it happens to see my name on the ballot next to ‘I Like You Just The Way You Are’ or ‘We’ll Always Have Paris’ or ‘Let’s Meet In Thompson - Manitoba’, don’t get cranky, you know I love you, and ballot! :-)

See Mike? This is how it is done. Easy. And now, for all Lonesome undecided voters out there ...The Good Lovelies!

We live in Vancouver and this keeps us busy.

George, it was my first time working as a scruitneer and it was an eye opener. I asked to be placed at Carnegie because of my shelter work. But what went on was just gob smacking. This one woman came in and was visibly tweaking. She left with one of the 'assigned' workers (they were assisting the COPE scrutineers) and came back about 10 minutes later higher than a kite. Then she was sitting in the middle of the hall, taking her clothes off because she was hot, wanting food..... So, the COPE scrutineer, who by the way stated she was a lawyer, takes off her scrutineer badge in order to assist this woman to help complete her ballot. When I raised concerns with the people there on behalf of Elections BC, the COPE person was like oh, sorry, and they grabbed the guy that took her out for her earlier 'stroll'. When I asked why this woman needed help, they stated she was disabled. I said she was an addict who was high and not disabled. That was just one inicident. Oh, and forgot to mention, Louie was present at this time. He was visiting the hall.

Pivot had a tent set up outside with people on hand to sign forms for people with no ID, stating that they were eligible to vote in that area. They used Pivot's and Cargegie's mailing addresses.

It was a circus George, a complete cirucs.

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People who vote now are usually well informed and try to make an informed decision thats why they dont look at going to the polls as an inconveniance but rather a duty.You cant vote if your drunk but I can see bars full of drunks voting on their i-phones for the flavour of the evening and people forcing their spouse to vote a certain way thus cancelling informed votes,this is a bad idea that will cause a lot of dissention.Bigger turnout is not always a better turnout.


I've been out looking for the homeless man I befriended this morning... can't find him yet.. hope yesterday went well..

I can imagine the situation at Carnegie. That is why I made the coffee comment to you. It is a known fact that food especially "coffee" is used to lure the disenfranchised.

Every non profit uses coffee and food to motive, the old Pavlov theory. The bottom line is the event does not matter, it is the offering that counts. And of course don't forget to sign the check in book... every signature equals cash$$$

But truth be told here Max, this is a two way street.. the good intentions over the years have created a society of entitlement. Thus ensuring union wage jobs..but the money is dwindling, the poor get much less, so the wages and pensions can be met.

That is why so many jump on the Vision bandwagon. It appears to have unlimited amounts of cash, very deep pockets... great food, our Mayor playing music for us, and parties ... something they don't get a lot of.

It is especially good if you can be asked by an organization to "speak" to Funder's...ahhh then the bounty is beautiful, because we all eat well when company is coming.

The Carnegie has always been used as a voting tool for parties.. it is very easy to promise the moon to someone that has nothing.

Remember when buses were used to bring the DTES residents to voting booths.

You would be shocked at which politicians jumped on the bandwagon last time around.. And the ones that crossed the line... but this last time they promised more than food, they promised people homes, jobs!!!

How cruel was that. They offered homes and gave them shelters with gym mats. The housing we see right now was negotiated under NPA, and Gregor struts around taking credit.

The problem is they think the poor, mentally ill, homeless, drug addicted are stupid... none of these issues equate to stupid. In fact quite the opposite, there is sometimes utter genius, just sick.

The system is messed up and as I said before, it is about political power, money and real estate... the homeless are just the chess pawns..

Shame on them...


Have you considered writing a full length article here? I am certain it would be an interesting read and, if you opened the lid on a few issues, quite controversial!

It's really too bad that this blog doesn't approach this issue from the perspective that there are shortcomings and problems with online voting that need solutions before implementation instead of just focusing on the negatives and shortfalls and delivering a resounding "no" - I think it's a good idea in principle but not in practice. How can we make it more secure and safe - I'd like to read an article on that. It's a matter of time before this moves online so how about you help steer it in the right direction instead of just opposing it.

The Thought of The Day

'Gregor Robertson. The Worst Mayor Vision's new found Hollyhock money could buy.'

I am seconding David Hadaway.

There are some untold stories that need to come out. You seem to be a good, bighearted, emphatic guy. Just the right person for the job.

If I had my own blog (speaking of privacy issues and internet security breaches, one of the reasons I don't) you would definitely be sitting on my guest couch.

If I would be Daniel Fontaine or Mike Klassen I would give this thought the utmost consideration as your information gift box, may just happen to hold the Golden Key to the City. And ain't that, what they are all looking for?

We live in Vancouver and this keeps us busy.

KT: But what if, by opposing it, you actually ARE steering it in the right direction?

Glissando Remmy

I have always been very clear how I feel about your musings. You have had my respect from the first time I read one of your comments.

What you have said to me today has humbled me beyond words...

Thank you, for one of the biggest compliments I have ever received...

I'm with you in spirit, but sadly I don't think the problems with Internet Voting are all "technology" problems.

Most of the problems stem from moving the function of voting out of a controlled environment (a polling station) to a remote location. For example, no technology can assure us the voter is free of coercion. No technology can assure us the voter is not being observed while voting.

I am not convinced Internet Voting is inevitable. Many business models have failed on the Internet and I think the case for Internet Voting is a classic example.

What are we really talking about? Do we care if something we do once every few years is a bit more convenient? Or do we care more about the trustworthiness of the result?


Interesting article in the Courier on David Eby and how he is part of the problem in the DTES, not the solution.

NDP byelection candidate demonizes and denigrates in Vancouver, May 10, 2011

Downtown Eastside suffers under David Eby

Max, my favorite line in the article..

"For several days a week, for at least the next two years, he’d be miles away from Main and Hastings."

I'm really torn about who to support in the Point Grey riding..

I really think Christy Clark should have debated David Eby.

To be honest if you have followed any of my comments on other blogs, you know I want answers about BC Rail.
Christy has not cleared that situation up to my satisfaction.

Since I am the minority group that has taken massive cuts over the years... I need to know who was involved there.

Why my disability cheques were nickle and dimed away..why young Moms were put in the position they were under Liberal leadership. I find the policies being rolled out right now disingenuous.

I wish she would talk to me face to face, but I'm a little person, she never would take the time to talk to me. I have nothing to offer, I am only one vote..

I personally was let down by David Eby. At I time when I desperately needed help.

He was rude, arrogant, condescending, and shooed me away with the usual attitude people in the poverty industry have toward us, the little people he serves.

My life was changed dramatically and not for the better...

All that being said, at this point in time I don't think I can support either candidate...

I would be a hypocrite...

Ahhhh George,

Not such a 'little person'.

You got the attention of Shirley Bond with regard to the Pandora Street Fire and for that we thank you!

I have to admit, the BC First Candidate is somewhat interesting. I met her yesterday, randomly.

I was at a street crossing and someone was plastering Eby's poster over hers. She had a conversation with that person and asked them very kindly please not do that.

The sad thing, it comes down to Clark or Eby and I will never vote for Eby.

I'm curious what did the poster guy/girl say about the transgression of the poster caper?.. that is dirty fighting..I think NDP made a mistake with Eby.

I'm so glad I don't live in Point Grey...way too much responsibility, that is a huge decision... I just don't know.

Christy should have been more available for discussion.

On the subject of Shirley Bond, truth be told she assigned it to her people, but still she heard me..

CKNW still hasn't even bothered to respond to an email I sent weeks and weeks ago. So there you shows who is interested and who isn't.

For me, the bigger compliment was from Glissando Remmy, david hadaway, and you of course Max. :-)

I just got mugged by Clark's supporters and Eby's supporters.
At least that is what it felt like.

I cannot vote for either of them.

Eby's new card that came in the mail slottold me how much he wants to do for 'our'community.
He just parachuted into Point Grey awhile back.
Sold his condo and moved into Point Grey.

Am I cynical in saying that's a pretty opportunistic way of becoming part of 'our community '?

To steal from Shakespeare " A pox on all their houses"

Gee George.
Eby was rude,arrogant,and condescending to you?

He sounds like he was born to be the new version of a politician.

Just like Clark, chris(one of many)! And just like Robertson, chris! Opportunistic animals that are not worthy of our spits, chris. Glissando Remmy made some good points on Fabula's site on her highly 'sucking up' post on Madam Christy Clark. Required reading.IMHO. As for my thoughts on Eby? Another Vision vancouver & Solomon Hollyhock plant.
Unfortunately there is not much choice when you have to choose between the BC Liberals Clark evil and The Vision Eby madness. Why didn’t Mel Lehan threw his hat in the game again? Why did not the NDP let him do it again?Did the Vision apparatchik got to them or ARE Them? There was a decent man right there. I smell a Vision rat inside the NDP already. And the Holly charity monies from Solomon @ comp. are too good to pass. IMO. Just wait.

Chris too funny..

Mira, you said it... where is Mel Lehan...that man is so wonderful!!

Eby a Vision plant indeed...

Mel has more integrity in his pinky finger than both candidates combined.He would have won and actually done some good for the community of Point Grey, the environment and the UBC students.

As he has been doing unsung for years... I have the greatest respect for Mel Lehan..

Haha. Your humour is superb! Most people won`t get your joke, though. Sad.

Still, thanks for sharing!

The rumour on the street is that Mel Lehan was tired ( I wonder why)
He's dealt with health problems of his own.

Who can anybody vote for?
It's a travesty.

What a tragedy. Christy Clark or David Eby. Like having a colonoscopy after suffering from Malaria.

Best lines:
'Eby a Vision plant indeed...'
'The problem is they think the poor, mentally ill, homeless, drug addicted are stupid... none of these issues equate to stupid. In fact quite the opposite, there is sometimes utter genius, just sick.'
'In other words, you sit here and I will complete your ballot for you. Thanks. Have a cookie.'
'It was a circus George, a complete cirucs.'
chris (one of many)
'Am I cynical in saying that's a pretty opportunistic way of becoming part of 'our community '?'
Webmaster Flash
'Again, I want my finger PURPLE! Period.'
"Christy Clark it says...‘$50’. Now, would you ballot that?"
"Or next to David Eby – ‘Lunatic – He’s Waiting For You Outside’."
LMAO! I almost shat in my pants from laughter. So true.
Thanks guys.'re suggesting intentional fudging of figures to eventually financially benefit someone close to one or more of the champions of this dog that for sure won't hunt? Hmmm, never seen that from this Council before, have we?

Check out!

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